||1962 Internship at the Tel Hashomer Hospital, Tel Aviv, Israel.
1963 Resident in Internal Medicine, Donolo Government Hospital, Jaffa, Israel.
1963-1964 Senior House Officer in Neurology, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town Medical School, South Africa.
1964 Resident in Internal Medicine, Donolo Hospital, Jaffa, Israel.
1965-1967 Resident in Clinical Biochemistry, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.
1967-1970 Medical Officer in the Israeli Defense Forces.
1970-1973 Resident in Internal Medicine, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.
1973-1976 Fellow in Infectious Diseases, Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Boston, U.S.A.
1977-1981 Senior Physician, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hadassah University Hospital Jerusalem, Israel.
1980-1981 Research Associate at the Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Boston, U.S.A.
1981 Senior Lecturer with tenure at the Hebrew University.
1984 Head of the Clinical Infectious Diseases Unit, at the Hadassah University Hospital.
1984 Associate Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the Hebrew University.
1987-1989 Chairman of the Israeli Society for Clinical Infectious Diseases.
1988-1989 Visiting Professor, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health Hygiene, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.
1994 –2005 Director Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel