||- Rotating internship, Central Hospital for the Negev, Beer Sheba, Israel.
- MD degree - Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv.
- Field Doctor, Bedouin Tribes, South Sinai.
- Internal Medicine, Coney Island Hospital, Brooklyn, N.Y. (Internship).
1977-79 Internal Medicine, Mount Auburn Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA (Residency).
- Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y. (Fellowship).
- Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (Post Doc.).
1995 McGill AIDS Center, Montreal (Post Doc.).
1981-84 Director, Infectious Diseases Unit - Metropolitan Hospital, NY City.
Assistant Professor - New York Medical College 1981 - 1984
1984-99 Senior Consulting Physician - Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem.
1990-98 Director, AIDS Clinic, Hadassah University Hospital.
1993-95 Consultant - The West Bank Health Authority.
Chairman - Subcommittee on AIDS among drug abusers - The Israeli KNESSET.
1997-2008 Director, Hadassah AIDS Center (HAC).
1981-1984 Assistant professor, NY Medical College, NY.
2000-2007 Associate Clinical Professor of Virology at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem.